The Basic Functions of the Router Device

The Basic Functions of the Router Device
Many are still confused with this one hardware, especially if it is not a router which is still often equated with a hub or also with a switch. In fact, all three do have different explanations and different functions as well. Although indeed, when viewed from the shape there are still the same with one another. The basic function of the router device is actually as what? Let’s talk about it in this article.
Although there are still many people who do not know the physical form of a router, of course this will be very important if you work in an office where you may be in the IT department, you need to know what a router is and the basic functions of a router.

Router Brief

Maybe if it is explained in length, many people still do not understand. So the following is a brief understanding of the router and its basic functions.

Definition of Router

First, of course what we will discuss is a brief explanation of the router. Router is a network device that is used to connect several different networks. The different meaning here is that the domicile of the network or the domicile of the subnet mask is different, such as connecting the office network to the internet network.
Because it serves to connect several networks, the router has at least 2 network interfaces.

Router Functions

The basic function of the router device is actually as a liaison between several different networks. However, there are still various other router functions. Anything? Here is the explanation:

Information Link

Routers have a function to send data packets or an info over the internet or network from a certain location to another network.
This device is needed to direct such data packets to the network and with a suitable route.

Firewall Functions in DSL Router

In this case the router functions as a firewall that will filter packets based on the source and destination addresses of the packets. Routers that usually perform this function are also known as DSL routers.
However, not all routers have the same function. There are also routers that do not have a firewall, but nowadays many manufacturers also produce DSL routers.

Packet Filtering Router

To be able to carry out this function, a router that is generally applied is called a packet filtering router. This router will determine the data traffic that is transmitted via broadcast.
This will prevent broadcast storms from occurring. This can cause network performance to slow down.

Analyzing Data Packages

The router also has a function to analyze incoming data packets. In analyzing data packets, the router will select such packets to enter the most optimal path from one network to another.
Such data will then be entered into the routing table. The outing work is divided into two, namely static routing and dynamic routing.

Transmitting Information

The basic function of the router device is actually to transmit information or data. This tool will transmit information from certain networks to other networks.
This function is similar to a bridge or network bridge alias connecting from one device to another.

Router Type

Routers also have many types where one type with another type may have additional functions, but it does not eliminate the basic functions of the router. With these various types, of course, you can choose according to your needs.

Router kabel

The name itself defines its meaning. A cable is available to connect to the network. If you visit a bank, college or office, you can observe that your PC or laptop is connected to the internet using an Ethernet cable, and it is a wired router. The room has a separate Wi-Fi access point. If users want to connect to the phone, then they can use VIOP (voice-over IP technology). There is ADSL (modem) which has two jacks to connect to ethernet and cell phones.

Wireless router

These are usually found in offices, homes or train stations, etc. This type of router creates a wireless signal. Suppose you are in the office, you can connect to the internet using a wireless signal because your laptop is within range.

Internet Connectivity Routers

This type of router is a router that is used to connect various hardware so that they can connect to each other with an internet signal and can access the internet simultaneously.

Edge Router

Edge routers sit at the edge of the network backbone and can connect to core routers. This router can be wired or wireless and will distribute internet data packets between one or more networks. But it will not distribute internet data packets in the network.

Subscriber Edge Router (SER)

Subscriber Edge Router (SER) Also known as Customer Edge router. The customer’s Edge router applies the EBGP protocol, which is implemented in the organization (enterprise).

Inter Provider Border Router

This router is somewhat of a monitor for the network, as it allows interconnection between ISPs and also maintains BGP sessions. Core router – the central or backbone of the LAN.

Core Router

A router being an integral component of a LAN (Local Area Network) is called a core router. The core router implements the internal BGP protocol.
The core router has a special function in VPN, which is based on the combination of BGP protocol and Multi-Protocol Label Switching Protocol.

SOHO type router

One other type of router is a SOHO router. This applies to other network connections in a small geographic area known as SOHO connectivity.

Router Benefits and Advantages

If you have an office space or even your home that does have several different networks in order to run simultaneously and integrate properly, maybe you must understand the benefits and advantages of routers. Following are the advantages:
  • Because the features collide with each other, network traffic can be reduced.
  • Due to broadcasting domain, network traffic can be reduced.
  • It provides MAC address and IP address which will choose the best route across the network.
  • Easy to connect to wired or wireless network.
  • Very secure with passwords.
  • No loss of information.
  • It can connect to different network architectures like wired ethernet, Wi-Fi, WLAN.
  • Wireless router is easy to connect to internet for laptop or pc. No need to worry about a lot of cables.

Router Weaknesses

However, behind the advantages there must be disadvantages. No exception for routers, there are still shortcomings of routers that you should pay attention to. Among others are:
  1. Operates according to routable network protocols.
  2. They are more expensive as compared to other network devices.
  3. Communications Dynamic router communications can cause additional network overhead. This makes for less bandwidth for user data.
  4. Slower because they need to analyze data from layer-1 to layer-3.
  5. Requires a lot of initial configuration.
  6. A protocol dependent device that is supposed to understand the protocol being passed on.

How Routers Work

How does the router work? Is it just to prevent traffic collisions? Connecting different networks? Of course there is something more specific than that. How the router works may be complicated, but how the router works briefly and clearly can still be described and understood.
Simply put, routers connect devices in a network by forwarding data packets between them. This data can be sent between devices, or from devices to the internet. Routers do this by assigning local IP addresses to each device on the network. This ensures that data packets end up in the right place, rather than getting lost in the network.
Think of this data as a courier package that needs a shipping address to reach the right recipient. Your local computer network is like a suburban street, just knowing this location in the world at large (i.e. the World Wide Web) is not enough.
Packages can easily end up in the wrong house with limited information. Thus, the router ensures that each location (device) has a unique number so that the packet goes to the correct address.
If you need to return data to the sender, or send your own packets, your router does this job too. While it handles each packet individually, it does so so quickly that it feels instantaneous, even when multiple devices are sending data at once.


We have learned a router is a hardware network that is used to move, analyze and receive internet data packets within a network or network. It has more network functions than a hub or switch.
If you still have many questions about the basic functions of the router, what it actually is and others, you can ask NETDATA which can help you solve various problems about routers of any brand.


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