Internet Network – Internet is a need of many people today. In fact, the internet today can be said to be a primary need because just to communicate now requires an internet connection, whether it’s a phone call from an application, whether it’s Whatsapp or using social media for entertainment needs or as a need for work.
Everything is now all internet. However, many people still do not understand the various terms of the internet network that may be experienced by everyone who uses the internet.
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Explanation of Terms in the Internet Network
The Internet is a global network of smaller networks and computers. The World Wide Web, or web for short, is a space where digital content is presented to internet users. In other words, the web is part of the internet.
If you are a beginner, here are some basic internet and web terms to help you get a clearer understanding.
Kinds of Terms in the Internet Network
The internet is an increasingly important part of everyday life for people all over the world. But if you’ve never used the Internet before, all this new information may seem a little confusing at first.
RTO (Request Timed Out)
RTO or Recovery Time Objective is the maximum amount of downtime your business can tolerate without incurring significant financial loss. RTOs run in conjunction with a Recovery Point Objective (RPO), or the time interval during which your business can recover from data loss caused by an outage.
Reasonable RTO and RPO targets make the transition back to normal smoother after a disaster and should be part of disaster recovery planning.
What is RTO?
RTO is the target time required to restore your business and IT infrastructure after a disaster. For example, a two-hour RTO means that you give the personnel responsible for re-activating your service two hours. Data recovery is included in the scope of RTO.
When setting up your RTO, you must ensure that it reflects the nature and circumstances of your business. For example, if your business relies on online transactions, prolonged downtime could seriously affect your viability. Thus, your RTO should be short enough to minimize impact. A good RTO, in this case, would be to run your operation again in an hour or two (at the longest).
Causes of RTO on the Internet Network
RTO can occur for several reasons. Of course, when you experience an RTO, the thing you should pay attention to is knowing what causes the internet network to become an RTO. The following are the causes of RTO on the internet network that you know:
Internet Connection Problem
The biggest cause of an RTO internet connection is that the provider’s network is having problems. But it is possible that the problem is with the modem device that we are using. This internet connection disruption does occur due to several factors, whether it is due to a problematic internet connection or hardware.
The most certain reason why RTO occurs is due to unstable internet. This unstable internet is because the provider is experiencing interference from the center. Or it could be because the internet signal is not good.
Destined Address is Inactive
One web or server that is intended at the time of the ping, must be in an active state, in order to respond to your ping.
To check it, there are actually several ways that you can do.
But the easiest, you can try pinging another address in order to check it further.
This even applies when you open an online game. If the server is interrupted, the internet will also be difficult to connect, resulting in disconnection.
As mentioned above, the problem that can occur that causes RTO is that there is a hardware problem. Try to check the modem or router you are using, if it is replaced with another router, it means that the router you were using previously had a problem.
How to Solve RTO Connection
If you experience RTO problems as above, don’t worry, there are some very easy ways to solve RTO connections so you can use the internet smoothly again.
Make Sure Internet Connection Is Smooth
High ping is very common because the internet connection is not smooth or unstable or slow. A smooth internet connection is one with low ping.
Make sure Ping is Stable
Maybe you think, the internet connection is very good but often RTO. This is because the ping is unstable. The solution is to first check whether the ping response is stable or not.
Make sure the Destined Server or Web is Active
An inactive server is also a problem with the appearance of time out notifications. So you also need to consider that the targeted website must be in an active state to respond to pings made by visitors.
To check there are several systems that can be done, the easiest system is to ping another domicile to test further. This system applies when it is being used to open online games. If the server is interrupted then the internet is difficult to connect or become disconnected.
Make sure the Internet configuration is correct
Incorrect internet configuration can cause RTO to occur. Therefore, check the configuration by entering the router settings to the cellular network.
Check Your Internet Device
If the connection still doesn’t change and is still experiencing RTO, the step you have to do is check the internet device you are using.
Because it could be your internet device that has an error or damage so that the connection is experiencing problems. These things affect the RTO or suddenly disconnect.
The next term for the internet network is the host. The self-host is a very important component when you want to use the internet connection.
Definition of Host
A host is a computer or other device that communicates with other hosts on the network. Hosts on a network include clients and servers that send or receive data, services, or applications.
Hosts usually do not include intermediary network devices such as switches and routers, which are often categorized as nodes instead. Node is also a broader term that includes everything connected to a network, while host requires an IP address. In other words, all hosts are nodes, but network nodes are not hosts unless they require an IP address to function.
How Do Hosts Work?
The way the internet works is inseparable from the host and ISP who work together in providing connections and access to the server site where the files are placed.
The way the internet works starts when you connect your computer to the internet, you are connected to a special kind of server provided and operated by an Online Service Provider (ISP). The ISP’s job is to provide a link between browsers and grant access to the destination server.
5 Host Functions
Hosts have 5 main functions that you need to know, including:
Serving Client Computer Requests
The host can serve various requests from the client so that they can be processed. Whether it’s from a request for data or software so that it can be carried out by the client.
In order to support this function, usually the host will apply a safe and fast operating method. So, clients can work comfortably, safely and also more effectively.
Storing Data or Information
The next host function is to be able to store data or information. This stored data can take the form of a variety of documents as well as complex information.
In order to accommodate a lot of data, of course, the host must have a large storage capacity. Thus, the client can run storage and also access data simultaneously with other clients.
Providing a Database to Run
Usually, many large companies will use this function to be able to use big data.
After that, all data stored in this database can be processed and also accessed by users. With the presence of this service, many companies are able to optimize their business products or services.
Manage Data or File Transfer Traffic
A computer that functions to limit file transfer traffic that is done through file transfer protocol software. Such software is generally applied to access files online.
Safeguard from Evil Attack
Host means that it can function as security from malicious attacks such as malware by using anti-malware or a firewall.
After that, which is very closely related to the term internet network is dial up. A dial-up connection uses a standard telephone line and an analog modem to access the Internet at data transfer rates (DTR) of up to 56 Kbps.
A dial-up connection is the least expensive way to access the Internet, but it is also the slowest connection. However, without you knowing it, this was the first time the internet entered Indonesia.
Dial Up Is
A dial-up connection is established when two or more communication devices use the public telephone network to connect to an Internet service provider.
Many remote areas rely on dial-up Internet connections because broadband and cable are rare in remote areas with low population numbers.
ISPs often provide free dial-up connections, a viable alternative for budget-conscious customers.
Dial Up Function
Dial-up refers to an Internet connection made using a modem. The modem connects the computer to a standard telephone line, which serves as the data transfer medium. When a user initiates a dial-up connection, the modem dials the AInternet Service Provider (ISP) telephone number designated to receive dial-up calls.
Dial up itself serves to connect to the internet using a landline.
Things to Pay Attention to for Using Dial Up
Once a dial-up connection has been established, it is active until the user is disconnected from the ISP. Usually, this is done by selecting the “Disconnect” option using the ISP software or modem utility program. However, if the dial-up connection is interrupted by an incoming phone call or someone picks up the phone at home, service may also be lost.
Indeed, there are few or many things that might irritate you when using a dial up internet connection. But, either way, this is the internet network with very cheap access fees.
How to Use Dial Up Connection
If you want to use a dial up connection, there are several ways you can do this, namely:
Must Subscribe to One ISP
While you’re setting up your account on the phone, the customer service representative must then provide you with a username, phone number, and password. This is so you can log in safely.
Installing a Modem to Our Computer
Connect the telephone cord from the back of your PC to the Telephone jack outlet located on the wall of the room you are in. Turn on your PC power. and make sure the modem is properly plugged into your computer.
Install Internet Software Provided by ISP
Usually, every modem that uses a dial up connection gets the software directly from the ISP. Usually when you buy a dial up modem there is a CD that is used to install the software.
Connecting/Connecting (dial-up) to ISP
If that’s all, you just need to connect or connect to the ISP and you’re ready to use the internet with a dial up connection.
Advantages of Using Dial Up
When you use a dial up internet connection, you get several advantages compared to using other types of internet connections, including:
Low cost. You can get dialup internet access for under 100 thousand per month, depending on the ISP used. What is certain is that the cost is cheaper than other internet connections.
Everyone has a telephone line, a dialup connection is available to everyone with a computer and a modem (including the built-in modem). Security is guaranteed very guaranteed.
Dial up may be the only option available for rural or remote areas where a broadband connection is not available. Availability is guaranteed very much and very capable for remote areas.
Disadvantages of Using Dial Up
Behind the advantages of course there are disadvantages. Dial-up internet connection has drawbacks, including:
The data transmission speed is a bit low. At 56 Kbps or less, you’ll have a hard time downloading large files like video clips, software, sharing photos with friends and family, or playing computer games online.
Unstable Dial-up Connection
Sometimes you may get a busy signal when dialing an access number, this is rare nowadays as most ISPs will let you select several access numbers and then select the one that is available automatically.
Need a Phone Line
Some ISPs charge users based on connection duration, an additional fee on top of the monthly fee. Telephone lines are also counted today are also rarely used. However, this is the cheapest internet connection and only requires a telephone line.
Telephone Route Engagement
Your phone line fills up when you are connected to the internet. Some ISPs provide a caller ID service that allows you to see who is calling when you are connected. It’s still quite a hassle if you download a file and have to abandon your download to answer a call.
Subnetting in the IT world is no stranger to those of you who are in the network field.
Subnetting is also important in the world of networking where it is used in school networks, offices, public places, government, and others.
In creating a network we need subnetting and also a subnet mask, let’s look at some of the meanings and functions of the following subnetting:
What is subnetting?
What is subnetting? Understanding subnetting is a strategy used to separate a physical network into one logical sub-network that is smaller, namely subnets.
Subnets are designed which accept bits and the host portion of an IP address and also use those bits to assign smaller subnets to a network.
By using subnetting, it will be easier to create a network with limited hosts and the need for subnetting will be more flexible by determining which part of a 32-bit IP address represents the network ID and which part represents the host ID.
With a standard IP address there are only 3 network IDs available, namely 8 bits for class A, 16 bits for class B and 24 bits for class C.
The function of subnetting itself is to improve network performance and security. Using subnetting will allow your network to be more secure. The following are some of the more complete functions of subnetting:
Streamline IP Address
IP address savings can be by allocating a limited IP address and can increase the efficiency of the use of the host.
If the internet were limited by addresses in classes A, B, and C, each network would have 254, 65,000, or 16 million IP addresses for hosts.
Reduce Network Traffic
With subnetting, you can ensure that data traffic in a network, especially devices in the subnet, stays in that subnet, thereby reducing network slowness.
By strategically placing subnets it can help reduce network load and route traffic more efficiently.
If a large network does not use a subnet, then every computer or network device that spreads to all computers in the network will burden the work of switches and servers so that there is a high possibility of delays in network performance.
Improve network security
By separating the network using subnets, you can manage the flow of data traffic using ACL, QoS, or route maps that can identify threats and can be overcome easily and quickly.
Optimize network performance and speed
Network optimization in a network that has a lot of hosts is very necessary. Given that each host has the same network ID, it can slow down network work.
The use of TCP / IP can indeed manage all computers on the same network but is only limited in the form of a physical network.
That’s why subnetting is able to divide the broadcast domain of your network so as to allow you to better manage traffic flow so as to improve network performance.
The purpose of subnetting is of course to make it easier for a network administrator to create and secure a network. The following are some of the purposes of subnetting:
- Host addressing efficiency for example you have 10 hosts so you can use class C subnetting with 254 – 10 = 244 unused addresses.
- Can divide a class of networks or a number of subnetworks that are divided into smaller parts.
- Placing a host, whether on a network or not.
- Can solve the problem of hardware differences in a physical network topology.
- Can allocate IP addresses in the network so as to maximize the use of IP addresses.
- Increase security and reduce congestion due to too many hosts on a network.
Maybe for lay people about computer networks they don’t know what a MAC address is, so from that you can see an explanation of MAC addresses and their functions.
What is Mac Address?
MAC address stands for Media Access Control Address, which is the physical address of a network device that is unique and can also act as an identity for the device.
The definition of a MAC address may be almost the same as an ethernet card or ethernet card installed on a router which is a physical address or other device that can connect to a computer network.
MAC addresses are also permanently embedded in the ROM or Read Only Memory of a device.
As long as the device is connected to the internet network, it is certain to have a MAC address. For example, namely Bluetooth, Ethernet, FireWire, ATM, 802.11 Wireless Network, FDDI, ZigBee Networks, or IEEE 803.5 token ring.
With its unique nature, it is impossible for any device to have the same MAC address. MAC address has a length of 48 bits consisting of 12 decimal digits from 0 to F.
The first six digits of the MAC address usually indicate the network card manufacturer. Twelve digits will be converted into 6 so each digit has 2 digits separated by a : or – sign like: 01-35-86-75-8D-ab, or 01:26:86:75:8D:ab
Mac Address function
Earlier we discussed the meaning of MAC address given to every device connected to the internet network.
This MAC address is used as the identity of the device and as a differentiator from other network devices. Here is the complete MAC address function:
Filtering process on wireless networks
In the IT world, preventing strangers from entering a network, the router device works as a user filter by checking the MAC address.
Maybe the IP address can be changed but the MAC address will stay the same as long as the person is using the same device as well.
Identify stolen devices
MAC addresses can also be used as the identity of a device so that it can be used to identify stolen devices connected to the network.
So that’s why many companies or institutions record the MAC address of each member.
With the MAC address of the device it can be used for data recovery to connect to a wireless device or wireless.
For example, data recovery using Disk Drill, an application also developed by Cleverflies.
The application works with a deep scan system which checks the metadata still present in the file system.
Geographic Location Search
MAC addresses can be used to find the exact geographic location of a device. This identity can be used as evidence for the authorities to locate a device connected to the network.
Network technology is now fast enough that maybe some of us still don’t know the meaning of broadcast.
In the following explanation, we will discuss more deeply about broadcasting from the meaning of broadcast to the broadcast function:
Definition of Broadcast
Understanding broadcast is divided into 3 different characteristics, namely in general, computer networks, and according to communication science. And also the use of various media and the process of its application.
Definition of Broadcast in General
Understanding broadcast in general is a way of sending data to certain destinations simultaneously.
This shipment does not go through the inspection at each point. In addition, it does not also pay attention to whether the data is sent or not.
Another definition of broadcast is sending signals to several locations via satellite or radio simultaneously.
That way broadcast is a server service that can spread data in parallel to several clients at once.
Definition of Broadcast in Computer Networks
In computer networks, we know there is a term IP broadcast which is the last IP address used in a network so that this IP address cannot be used on other computers belonging to the client.
There are 3 types of broadcast network categories, namely broadcast domains, broadcast addresses and broadcast storms. Here is a brief explanation.
- Broadcast Domain, all devices that can be aware of signals coming from specific network devices available on one segment.
- Broadcast Address, is an address containing bit 1 and is able to send addresses to all terminals that access the network.
- Broadcast Storm / LOOP, broadcast storm is an atmosphere when the packet or data that is sent only rotates in the network because there is a design error on the network.
Definition of Broadcast according to Communication Science
Communication science, broadcasting or broadcasting is a branch of communication science that deals with broadcasting.
The definition of broadcast according to communication science can be concluded if this broadcasting material focuses on the theory as well as the practice of sending or broadcasting so that it can be interesting and easily accepted.
Broadcast itself has a character to entertain, educate and provide information. Which delivery and broadcasting can be done over the network with cables or wirelessly.
Wireless networks may be more popular and flexible than wired, but wired networks are much more stable for stability.
Types of Broadcast Media
Those are some meanings of broadcast from 3 different categories. So we turn to several types of broadcast media which are divided into 2 types, namely print media and electronic media.
Print media is an intermediary media that can convey information widely. Print media can be in the form of paper, be it newspapers, magazines, tabloids, and so on.
This electronic media is called because it uses a device that can only be connected to a power source.
There are electronic media that use cables and wirelessly. Broadcast delivery using electronic media is certainly much faster than print media and also has a wider reach. This appearance is more attractive which can be in the form of sound or moving images.
This online media is a combination of the characteristics of the two previous types of media which are able to convey information through the internet network.
To speed up the delivery of information, it is supported by large-scale network systems such as WAN and MAN.
The use of online media is indeed quite practical and can be accessed in the form of audio, video and text anywhere, anytime very quickly. However, not all of the information is accurate.
In addition, online media is also very dependent on signal strength. Even so, this online media continues to experience developments in the delivery of information.
Have you ever had a phone call with a colleague then it suddenly got disconnected? Of course this will really upset you. This is known as a network problem or connection jitter.
Therefore we need to know some information about jitter as follows:
Definition of Jitter
The definition of jitter in Internet protocol or IP networks is latency or packet linkage between two systems when some packets take longer for transmission from one system to another. Jitter results from network congestion, time lapses as well as route changes.
Jitter usually occurs in real-time communications such as VoIP and video calls. This jitter is also a serious problem for desktops that causes audio and video artifacts, to the point of decreasing communication quality.
Cause of high Jitter
The causes of jitter itself are as follows:
Poor hardware performance
Using outdated networks that are old equipment, such as old cables, switches, and routers that can cause network jitter.
Not enough bandwidth
The network is full of heavy traffic with poor performance due to many active devices and crowded bandwidth.
Wireless network jitter.
One of the disadvantages of using a wireless network is that the network connection is quite low.
The use of a wired connection will certainly be more stable and help the video and voice call system provide a better user experience (UX).
Does not apply packet priority.
In Voice Over IP or VoIP communication systems, this jitter often occurs when audio data is not prioritized for transmission other than other data transmissions.
Types of jitter
The types of jitter itself are divided into several categories, including:
Constant jitter is the rate of variation of packet-to-data packet delay which usually occurs continuously.
Transient jitter itself is characterized by a significant incremental delay which can be caused by a single packet.
Short-term delay variations
The occurrence of short-term delay variations, marked by a continuous increase in delays for some number of packets, which allows an increase in packet-to-packet delay variations.
This type of jitter is usually accompanied by congestion and route changes.
How to calculate the high and low jitter
Jitter measurement consists of calculating the average packet to packet delay time which can be done in various ways depending on the type of traffic, including:
Voice traffic (Voice Traffic).
It can be measured whether the user has control over one endpoint or both.
This is measured by calculating the mean round-trip time or RTT and while the minimum round-trip comes from a series of voice packets, which is called the ping jitter test. RTT is the temporary required token or packet to travel from a specific source to a target.
Double endpoint which can be measured using instantaneous jitter measurement which refers to the variation between the interval sent and received on a single packet.
Performing a bandwidth test includes being able to determine the jitter level, which evaluates the upload and download speed of a user’s internet connection, jitter time, and overall network capacity.
That’s our discussion of the term internet network which includes the meaning of rto, meaning host, dialup, subnetting, mac address, and jitter.
From this article, we come to know some of the most common internet network terms so that we can immediately find out what the problem is in our internet network.
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